Virginia County records vary widely from county to county both in quality and quantity. Some are already very carefully maintained while others have been much abused and uncared for. Some Virginia records have merely disappeared. For genealogists undertaking research in Virginia there’s no valuable replace for an on-site research of county courthouse records. For Definitions of all court terms see the Genealogy Encyclopedia
Remember as you conduct your genealogy records research in the County and/or City, that when a new county was formed or incorporated, the records stayed in the parent and were not moved. Also many county and city records are still with the locality and not at the Library of Virginia.
Most Virginia county records from before 1900 can be found on microfilm at the FHL and the Library of Virginia. However, the sizes of both collections and the dates covered within those collections are different. The Library of Virginia’s website lists its holdings. The city and county courthouses also hold many original records.
Wars, fires and other problems have come up throughout Virginia’s history, which has caused many of the state’s records to be lost. The majority of those records were lost during the destruction of courthouses and other buildings throughout the Civil War. In 1865 Richmond burned, destroying many records. Jamestown was also destroyed 3 different times. However, despite all of that, there are still many excellent genealogical resources to be found in the state. However, researchers must remember that the Virginia county boundary lines have changed many times throughout the years. Researchers must be mindful of that, as well as of migration patterns, in order to find the appropriate records.
There are several cities in Virginia that are independent from the counties that surround them. No other states have independent cities. Researchers should act as though those independent cities are counties for researcher purposes. The Library of Virginia’s website lists 16 sets of independent city records. City status in Virginia is determined by populations, which means that 25 Virginia towns did not become incorporated until 1904 and beyond. Several counties in Virginia have actually become part of its independent cities and therefore no longer exist as counties. In some instances, those county and city records are still kept separately. See also a list of links to county and county seat government run websites.
List of Virginia Counties
|County||Date Formed||Parent County||County Seat|
|Albemarle||1744||Goochland and Louisa Counties||Charlottesville|
|Alleghany||1822||Bath, Botetourt and Monroe Counties||Covington|
|Amelia||1734||Brunswick and Prince George Counties||Amelia Court House|
|Appomattox||1845||Buckingham, Campbell, Charlotte and Prince Edward Counties||Appomattox|
|Arlington||1920||renamed from Alexandria County||Arlington|
|Bath||1790||Augusta, Botetourt and Greenbrier Counties||Warm Springs|
|Bedford||1753||Albemarle and Lunenburg Counties||Bedford|
|Bland||1861||Giles, Tazewell and Wythe Counties||Bland|
|Botetourt||1769||Augusta and Rockbridge Counties||Fincastle|
|Brunswick||1720||Prince Geore, Surry and isle of Wight Counties||Lawrenceville|
|Buchanan||1858||Russell and Tazewell Counties||Grundy|
|Buckingham||1758||Albermarle and Appomattox Counties||Buckingham|
|Caroline||1727||Essex, King and Queen and King William Counties||Bowling Green|
|Carroll||1842||Grayson and Patrick Counties||Hillsville|
|Charles City||1634||Colonial lands||Charles City|
|Charlotte||1764||Lunenburg County||Charlotte Court House|
|Craig||1851||Alleghany, Botetourt, Giles, Montgomery, Monroe and Roanoke Counties||New Castle|
|Cumberland||1748||Goochland and Buckingham Counties||Cumberland|
|Dickenson||1880||Buchanan and Russell, Wise Counties||Clintwood|
|Dinwiddie||1752||Prince George County||Dinwiddie|
|Essex||1694||old Rappahannock County||Tappahannock|
|Fairfax||1742||Prince William and Loudoun Counties||Fairfax|
|Fauquier||1758||Prince William County||Warrenton|
|Floyd||1831||Montgomery and Franklin Counties||Floyd|
|Franklin||1785||Bedford, Henry and Patrick Counties||Rocky Mount|
|Frederick||1738||Orange and Augusta Counties||Winchester|
|Giles||1806||Montgomery, Monroe, Mercer, Tazewell, Craig and Wythe Counties||Pearisburg|
|Grayson||1792||Patrick and Wythe Counties||Independence|
|Greensville||1780||Brunswick and Sussex Counties||Emporia|
|Hanover||1720||New Kent County||Hanover|
|Henry||1776||Patrick and Pittsylvania Counties||Martinsville|
|Highland||1847||Bath and Pendleton Counties||Monterey|
|Isle of Wight||1634||Warrosquoyoake County||Isle of Wight|
|James City||1634||Colonial lands||Williamsburg|
|King and Queen||1720||New Kent County||King George|
|King George||1691||Richmond and Westmoreland Counties||King William|
|King William||1701||King and Queen County||King & Queen Court House|
|Lancaster||1651||York and Northumberland Counties||Lancaster|
|Lee||1792||Russell and Scott Counties||Jonesville|
|Montgomery||1776||Fincastle, Botetourt and Pulaski Counties||Christiansburg|
|New Kent||1654||York and James City Counties||New Kent|
|Page||1831||Rockingham and Shenandoah Counties||Luray|
|Powhatan||1777||Cumberland and Chesterfield Counties||Powhatan|
|Prince Edward||1753||Amelia County||Farmville|
|Prince George||1702||Charles City County||Prince George|
|Prince William||1730||King George and Stafford Counties||Manassas|
|Pulaski||1839||Montgomery and Wythe Counties||Pulaski|
|Richmond||1692||old Rappahannock County||Warsaw|
|Roanoke||1838||Botetourt and Montgomery Counties||Salem|
|Rockbridge||1778||Augusta and Botetourt Counties||Lexington|
|Scott||1814||Lee, Russell and Washington Counties||Gate City|
|Shenandoah||1778||renamed from Dunmore||Woodstock|
|Smyth||1832||Washington and Wythe Counties||Marion|
|Southampton||1749||Isle of Wight and Nansemond Counties||Courtland|
|Spotsylvania||1720||Essex, King and Queen and King William Counties||Spotsylvania|
|Surry||1652||James City County||Surry|
|Tazewell||1799||Russell and Wythe Counties||Tazewell|
|Warren||1836||Frederick and Shenandoah Counties||Front Royal|
|Washington||1776||Fincastle and Montgomery Counties||Abingdon|
|Westmoreland||1653||Numberland and King George Counties||Montross|
|Wise||1856||Lee, Russell and Scott Counties||Wise|
|Wythe||1789||Montgomery and Grayson Counties||Wytheville|
Virginia Independent City Repositories and Records
Virginia is the only state with independent cities. Independent cities are politically and administratively separate from the county or counties in which they are geographically located. Independent cities operate their own court system. As of 1987, there were forty-one independent cities in Virginia; since population determines city status, more than half were incorporated after 1904. Many Virginia counties have been absorbed by independent cities. There are currently 39 independent cities in the Commonwealth.
|Independent City||Year Established||Year Incorporated |
|County / Cities
|Alexandria City||1749||1779||1852 / 1870||Alexandria County|
|Buena Vista City||-||1890||1892||Rockbridge County|
|Charlottesville City||1762||1801||1888||Albemarle County|
|Chesapeake City||-||-||1963||Norfolk County and the former city of South Norfolk|
|Colonial Heights City||1910||1926||1948||Chesterfield County|
|Covington City||1818||1833||1953||Alleghany County|
|Danville City||1793||1830||1890||Pittsylvania County|
|Emporia City, VA||1887||1892||1967||Greensville County|
|Falls Church City||1850||1875||1948||Fairfax County|
|Franklin City||1830s||1876||1961||Southampton County|
|Fredericksburg City||1728||1782||1879||Spotsylvania County|
|-||1906||1954||Grayson County and Carroll County|
|Hampton City||1680||1849, 1852 & 1887||1908||Elizabeth City County|
|Harrisonburg City||1780||1849||1916||Rockingham County|
(aka City Point)
|1613||-||1916||Prince George County|
|Lexington City||1778||1874||1965||Rockbridge County|
|Lynchburg City||1786||1805||1852||Campbell County|
|Manassas City||1852||1874||1975||Prince William County|
|Manassas Park City||1955||1957||1975||Prince William County|
|Martinsville City||1791||1873||1928||Henry County|
|Newport News City||1880||-||1896||Warwick County|
|Norfolk City||1680||1736||1845||Norfolk County|
(aka Prince's Flats)
|Petersburg City||1748||1784||1850||Dinwiddie, Prince George, and Chesterfield counties|
|Poquoson City||1885||1952||1976||York County|
|Portsmouth City||1752||1836||1858||Norfolk County|
(aka Lovely Mount, English Ferry, Ingles's Ferry, Central Depot, and Central City)
|Richmond City||1742||1782||1842||Henrico and Chesterfield Counties|
(aka Big Lick)
|Salem City||1806||1836||1968||Roanoke County|
|South Boston City||1796||1884||1960||Halifax County|
|Staunton City||1761||1801||1871||Augusta County|
|Suffolk City||1742||1808||1910||Nansemond County|
|Virginia Beach City||-||1906||1952||Princess Anne County|
|Waynesboro City||1801||1834||1948||Augusta County|
(aka Middle Plantation)
|1633 / 1699||1722||1884||James City and York Counties|
Virginia Extinct Counties
Virginia has counties that no longer are in existence. They were recognized by the state, provincial, or territorial government. A lot of these counties were created and disbanded within the Nineteenth century; county borders have modified very little since Nineteen hundred in the great majority of states. These counties really should be looked at when you are performing family history and genealogy research. Pay attention where the courthouse records went to if the county was abolished or combined with some other county.
- Accawmack County was established in 1634 as a Original Shire. It was renamed to Northampton County in 1642
- Charles River County was established in 1634 as an Original Shire. It was renamed to York County in 1642
- Dunmore County was established in 1772 from Frederick County. It was renamed to Shenandoah County in 1778
- Elizabeth River Shire was established in 1634 as an Original Shire. It was renamed to Elizabeth City County about 1636. In merged into the Independent City of Hampton in 1952.
- Fincastle County was established in 1772 from Botetourt County. It ceased to exist in 1776 when it was divided to form Montgomery County, Washington County, and Kentucky County (now the state of Kentucky). Some Fincastle County genealogy records may be found in the Montgomery County.
- Kentucky County was established in 1777 from Fincastle County. It was abolished when it formed the State of Kentucky in 1780.
- Lower Norfolk County was established in 1637 from New Norfolk County. It was abolished in 1691. Records can be found in the City of Chesapeake
- Nansemond County was established in 1642 from Upper Norfolk County. It was Incorporated as the City of Nansemond in 1972 and merged with the City of Suffolk in 1974.
- New Norfolk County was established in 1636 from Elizabeth City County. It was abolished in 1637 and divided into Lower Norfolk and Upper Norfolk Counties.
- Norfolk County was established in 1691 from Lower Norfolk County. It merged into the Independent City of Chesapeake in 1963.
- Princess Anne County was established in from Lower Norfolk County. It merged into the Independent City of Virginia Beach in 1963.
- Old Rappahannock County was established in 1656 from Lancaster County. It ceased to exist in 1692 when divided to form Essex County and Richmond County. Records located in Essex County.
- Upper Norfolk County was established in 1637 from New Norfolk County. It was renamed to Nansemond County in 1646.
- Warrosquyoake County was established in 1634 as an Original Shire. It was renamed to Isle of Wight County in 1637.
- Warwick River County was established in 1634 as an Original Shire. It was renamed to Warwick County in 1643.
- Warwick County was established in 1643 from Warwick River County. It was abolished in 1952 when it became Indepentent City of Warwick. In 1958 the City of Warwick merged into the Indepentent City of Newport News.
- Yohogania County was established in 1776 from West Augusta territory. The County was ceded to Pennsylvania in 1785.
Virginia Counties with Burned Courthouses
The destruction to Virginia courthouses drastically has a effect on family historians in almost every way. Not only are these types of historic buildings torn from all of our lifetimes, so are the archives they housed: marriage, wills, probate, land records, and others. Once destroyed they are lost forever. Although they happen to have been placed on mircofilm, computers and film burn up too. The most tragic aspect of this is the reason why nearly all of our courthouses are destroyed from arsonist. Although, not all records were lost. Numerous Virginia counties have dealt with a loss of records due to courthouse fires, floods, and theft.
The Civil War caused devastating damage to multiple cities and their records. “Burned Record Counties” records can be difficult to find or replace using other resources. However, the Burned Record Counties Database at the Library of Virginia can be quite helpful to researchers. The manuscript room at the Library of Virginia holds the Burned Records County Collection. The following counties have lost a large amount of records over the years: Appomattox, Buchanan, Buckingham, Dinwiddie, Elizabeth City, Gloucester, Hanover, Henrico, James City, King and Queen, Nansemond, New Kent, Prince George, Warwick
Researchers interested in information on those counties may need to have added patience and spend more time looking into various different resource avenues.
- Albemarle Co., Courthouse: created in 1744, all order books except the first and all loose papers were destroyed in Tarleton’s raid on Charlottesville in 1781.
- Appomattox Co., Courthouse: created in 1845, county court records were destroyed by fire in 1892.
- Bland Co., Courthouse: created in 1861, all but a few record books and some chancery papers were destroyed by fire in 1888.
- Brunswick Co., Courthouse: created in 1732, the first pages of a number of early record books damaged by time.
- Buchanan Co., Courthouse: created in 1858, county court records were destroyed by fire in 1885; records created after that date suffered extreme damage in a flood in 1977. A few re-recorded deeds exist.
- Buckingham Co., Courthouse: created in 1761, county court records were destroyed by fire in 1869. One plat book survived and some wills and deeds were later recorded.
- Caroline Co., Courthouse: created in 1728, most records prior to 1836 were destroyed during the Civil War. Some deeds and wills are recorded in extant Chancery Papers, and a considerable number of order books and loose papers survive.
- Charles City Co., Courthouse: created in 1634 as an original shire, records have been destroyed at various times. The most damage occurred during the Civil War when the records were strewn through woods in a rainstorm. Many fragments of records exist, so many, in fact, that there is something for almost every year.
- Chesterfield Co., Courthouse: created in 1749, lost one marriage register and some loose court papers during the Civil War.
- Clarke Co., Courthouse: created in 1836, had pages cut from several record books during the Civil War.
- Craig Co., Courthouse: created in 1851, lost the first deed book and most of the loose papers during the Civil War.
- Dinwiddie Co., Courthouse: created in 1752, county court records prior to 1833 were destroyed in 1865. One plat book, one order book, and one judgment book survive.
- Elizabeth City Co., Courthouse: created in 1634 as an original shire, records were damaged and/or destroyed during the Revolutionary War, War of 1812, and the Civil War. A few early deeds, wills, orders, and guardian’s accounts survive.
- Fairfax Co., Courthouse: created in 1742, original wills and deeds as well as many other loose papers were destroyed during the Civil War; deed books for twenty-six of the fifty-six years between 1763 and 1819 are missing.
- Gloucester Co., Courthouse: created in 1651, all county court records were destroyed by an 1820 fire, and most of the records created after that date were destroyed in Richmond on 3 April 1865. Six minute books from the nineteenth century and two surveyor’s record books survive.
- Greene Co., Courthouse: created in 1838, lost the first deed book during the Civil War when it was removed from the courthouse; no records were lost, but some suffered extreme water damage in efforts to put out a fire in the 1970s.
- Hanover Co., Courthouse: created in 1721, most county court records were destroyed by fire in Richmond on 3 April 1865. A few isolated record books that were not sent to Richmond and various scraps of loose papers survive.
- Henrico Co., Courthouse: created in 1634 as an original shire, all county court records prior to 1655 and almost all prior to 1677 are missing; additionally, many isolated records were destroyed during the Revolutionary War, and almost all Circuit Court records were destroyed by fire in Richmond on 3 April 1865.
- James City Co., Courthouse: created in 1634 as an original shire, all county court records were lost in 1865.
- King and Queen Co., Courthouse: created in 1691, county court records were lost in fires in 1828 and 1865. One plat book and three mid-nineteenth century Superior Court record books survive.
- King George Co., Courthouse: created in 1721, had one will book, an early marriage register, and an order book “carried away during the Civil War.” A few years ago the will book was deposited in the Virginia Historical Society.
- King William Co., Courthouse: created in 1702, all county court records prior to 1885 (except for seventeen will books) were destroyed in a fire in that year.
- Lee Co., Courthouse: created in 1793, lost the oldest marriage register in an 1863 fire.
- Louisa Co., Courthouse: created in 1742, lost one order book in Richmond in 1865.
- Mathews Co., Courthouse: created in 1791, all county court records were burned in Richmond on 3 April 1865. At least two bond books, one plat book, and a number of fee books survive.
- Northumberland Co., Courthouse: created in 1645, suffered some loss in a fire in the clerk’s office on 25 October 1710.
- Nottoway Co., Courthouse: created in 1789, many county court records were destroyed or heavily mutilated in 1865.
- Nansemond Co., Courthouse: created in 1652, county court records were destroyed in three separate fires, the earliest of which consumed the house of the court clerk in April 1734 (where the records were kept at that time), and the last on 7 February 1866. A few fee books have been found in the records of Sussex County. All records transferred to City of Suffolk include: Marr fr. 1866, Land fr. 1734, Probate fr. 1866 and Court Records fr. 1774.
- New Kent Co., Courthouse: created in 1654, county court records were destroyed when John Posey burned the courthouse on 15 July 1787, and records created after that date were lost to fire in 1865.
- Prince William Co., Courthouse: created in 1731, many county court records have been lost, destroyed, or stolen at various times. Scattered years of deeds, wills, and orders, as well as various bond books and a plat book, survive.
- Prince George Co., Courthouse: created in 1703, most county court records were burned during the Civil War. A few record books survived and, proving that there is always hope, the volume in which deeds and wills were recorded between 1710 and 1713 was found within the last decade.
- Richmond Co., Courthouse: created in 1692, has some record books damaged and mutilated due to unknown causes; additionally, the will books prior to 1699 were missing as early as 1793, and order books for the period 1794-1816 are also missing.
- Rockingham Co., Courthouse: created in 1778, many pre-Civil War records were lost during the Valley Campaign of 1864. In an effort to safeguard the records, they were loaded onto a wagon that was subsequently set afire by Union troops. Records that were saved include: administrators, executors, and guardians bonds.
- Russell Co., Courthouse: created in 1786, the first marriage register and all loose files were lost in a fire in the clerk’s office in 1872.
- Stafford Co., Courthouse: created in 1664, many pre-Civil War county court records were lost to vandalism during the war. Scattered years of deeds, wills, and orders have survived as has an old General Index.
- Surry Co., Courthouse: created in 1652, has lost deeds for 1835-1838 and order books for 1718-1741 and various other early record books are fragmentary. Court house fires in 1906 and 1922 did not result in loss of records which were then housed in a separate clerk’s office.
- Warwick Co., Courthouse: created in 1643, county court records were destroyed at several times with most destruction occurring during the Civil War. A seventeenth century livestock registry, one order book, and one minute book from the eighteenth century survive.
- Washington Co., Courthouse: created in 1777, lost a minute book for the period 1787-1819 and many loose papers in a fire in the clerk’s office on 15 December 1864.
- Westmoreland Co., Courthouse: created in 1653, lost an order book for the period 1764-1776 to theft, and many loose papers were damaged during both the Revolutionary War and the Civil War.