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New Jersey Counties and Historical Facts


New Jersey County records differ vastly from county to county in either quality not to mention quantity. Some have been very carefully preserved while some have been substantially mistreated and uncared for. Some New Jersey records have simply vanished. For genealogists carrying out research in New Jersey there is no valuable replace to have an on-site research of county courthouse records. For Definitions of all court terms see the Genealogy Encyclopedia.

There are 21 counties in the state of New Jersey. Each one has its own records relating to court cases, estates, land transfers, and other important events. Each county is governed by a Board of Freeholders, whose records should not be overlooked. Other useful county records may be located in the courthouses or at the New Jersey State Archives, including Justice of the Peace Dockets; tavern, peddler’s, and shopkeeper’s licenses; road books; and slave births and manumissions. The New Jersey State Archives and individual courthouses may also hold useful information. That information could include, but is not limited to, Justice of the Peace Dockets, Tavern Licenses, Peddlers’ Licenses, Shopkeepers’ Licenses, Road Books or Slave Births.

Certain counties have their own county archives or county record centers. Older records are transferred to those locations for research and preservation purposes. The counties that currently have those sorts of facilities are Bergen, Cape May, Hudson, Middlesex, Monmouth, Morris, Ocean, Salem, Somerset and Sussex.

However, researchers should still contact county clerks, first, since many of them have retained original records.

The state archives holds some select ancient town books, but many records are still held by the cities, townships, and boroughs. The Rutgers Special Collections and University Archives, the New Jersey Historical Society and other genealogical and historical societies also house many old town records. Those records may include listings of elected officials and indigents, as well as notices of stray animals and other information.

A state legislative act in 1979 created a system of local historians. It is the job of those historians to “promote and preserve the history of the municipalities.” However, their coverage is not universal across the state. The New Jersey Historical Commission’s website provides a list of those historians.

Most municipal records are still in the townships, boroughs, and cities, but some are at the state archives and the New Jersey Historical Society. These list earmarks (although some are also found in county records), indigents, elected officials, stray animals, and so forth. Choose from the counties below to view the county information. See also a list of links to county and county seat government run websites.

List of New Jersey Counties

CountyDate FormedParent CountyCounty Seat
Atlantic1837Gloucester CountyMays Landing
Bergen1683One of four original counties created in East JerseyHackensack
Burlington1694One of two original counties created in West JerseyMount Holly Township
Camden1844Gloucester CountyCamden
Cape May1692Burlington CountyCape May Court House
Cumberland1748Salem CountyBridgeton
Essex1683One of four original counties created in East JerseyNewark
Gloucester1686Burlington CountyWoodbury
Hudson1840Bergen CountyJersey City
Hunterdon1714Burlington CountyFlemington
Mercer1838Burlington, Hunterdon, Middlesex, and Somerset CountiesTrenton
Middlesex1683One of four original counties created in East JerseyNew Brunswick
Monmouth1683One of four original counties created in East JerseyFreehold Borough
Morris1739Hunterdon CountyMorristown
Ocean1850Monmouth CountyToms River
Passaic1837Bergen County and Essex CountyPaterson
Salem1694One of two original counties created in West JerseySalem
Somerset1688Middlesex CountySomerville
Sussex1753Morris CountyNewton
Union1857Essex CountyElizabeth
Warren 1824Sussex CountyBelvidere

List of New Jersey Extinct Counties

New Jersey has no counties that are Extinct.

List of New Jersey Counties with Burned Courthouses

The damage to New Jersey courthouses drastically has a affect on family historians in every way. Not only are a lot of these historic structures torn from our lifetimes, so are the archives they stored: marriage, wills, probate, land records, among others. Once destroyed they’re destroyed permanently. Although they happen to have been put on mircofilm, computers and film burn too. The most sad aspect of this is the reason that almost all of our courthouses are destroyed from arsonist. Although, don’t assume all records were lost. Many New Jersey counties have suffered a loss of records due to courthouse fires, floods, and theft.

  • Gloucester County Courthouse – The courthouse was destroyed by fire in 1786
  • Somerset County Courthouse – In 1779 the courthouse, then at Millstone, was burned.

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